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Flora And Fauna At Jim Corbett National Park

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Flora And Fauna At Jim Corbett National Park

Flora and Fauna: The different habitat types of Corbett i.e. mountains, sal forests, chaurs, khair-sissoo forests, and rivers have their distinct assemblage of plants. More than 600 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, bamboos, grasses, climbers and ferns have been identified in the Park.

Trees

The most visible trees found in Corbett are sal, sissoo and khair. Many other species that contribute to the diversity are found scattered throughout the park. Chir pine is the only conifer of the Park and is found on ridge-tops like Chir Choti but comes quite low in Gajar Sot. The upper reaches near Kanda have Banj Oak growing, which is essentially a Himalayan species.

Palms include Date palm that grows in open areas. Kanju (Holoptelia integrifolia), Jamun (Syzygium cumini) and Aamla (Emblica officinalis) are found scattered moist areas. Other major tree species are

  • Bel
  • Kusum
  • Mahua
  • Bakli

Flowering trees lend colour to the forests in Corbett. The main ones are Kachnaar (Bauhinia variegata) with pink to white flowers, Semal (Bombax ceiba) with big red blooms, Dhak or Flame-of-the-forest (Butea monosperma) with bright orange flowers, Madaar or Indian Coral (Erythrinia indica) with scarlet red flowers and Amaltas (Cassia fistula) with bright yellow chandelier like blooms.

Some species of trees that do not occur naturally in the Park have been artificially planted in and around habitation. These include:

  • Teak (Tectona grandis)
  • Eucalyptus
  • Jacaranda
  • Silver Oak
  • Bottlebrush

Grasses

Grasses form the largest group of plant species in Corbett with more than 70 species recorded. They occupy different habitats, especially chaurs. They include:

  • Kansi
  • Themeda arundinacea
  • Baib or Bhabar
  • Narkul
  • Tiger Grass
  • Khus Khus

Spear Grass with conspicuous sharp blades that adhere to clothes and penetrates skin.

Bamboo

In some parts of Corbett the vegetation is dominated by bamboo forest. The main species is Male Bamboo having clustered stout stems and shining papery stem sheaths. Bamboos follow a peculiar flowering process. All bamboos in a forest flower together at the same time once in several decades. After flowering, fruiting and dispersal of seeds, all plants die together.

Shrubs 

Shrubs dominate the forest floor. There are several species of Ber found in open areas that provide food and habitat to many birds and animals. Maror phali is an easily noticeable shrub. Its fruits are in the form of twisted spiraling pods. Karaunda with pinkish-white flowers and sour fruit is found under sal. Hisar has yellow, juicy, berry-like fruits that are savoured by animals. Jhau is found along the Ramganga basin on sandy or rocky soil.

Fauna

 

The fauna found in Jim Corbett National Park is rich and varied. There are over 600 species of birds along with 50 mammal species and 25 reptile species; hence, over the years, this park has become one of the best wildlife spots sports in India.

 

Mammals

 

The Bengal tigers are found in a fairly good population of the Park; hence, it is one of the critical tiger protection regions under Project Tiger.

 

Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris): This is the most prominent of the species found in the park. Jim Corbett, with its large population, offers some of the finest opportunity in the country to view these magnificent predators in their natural habitat.

Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus): These ΑGeneratedValue are commonly encountered in the park in small to large herds and play a vital role in the maintenance of the park's ecological balance.

Leopard (Panthera pardus): Leopards have innovative habitats than tigers and are also found here, although they are very shy and stealthy in their presence.

Deer species: In the park, various deer species like Chital (Axis axis), Sambar (Rusa unicolor), and Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak) among the herbivores form the typical prey base for the carnivores.

 

The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is quite frequent in the park and is very useful for the ecosystem by aerating the soil.

 

Birds

Meeting more than 600 plus recorded bird species, Jim Corbett National Park is literally a paradise for bird watchers. The park has both residents and migratory birds.

 

Crested Serpent Eagle: A very common raptor in this park.

Indian Pitta: By its bright-colored plumage, it can easily be seen in the forest areas in this park.

Great Hornbill: This large bird, together with its slow and measured wingbeats and the distinctive casque atop the bill, draws many a bird watcher's attention.

Waterfowl: Common Kingfisher, Stork-billed Kingfisher, and the White-throated Kingfisher are seen beside water bodies.

Migratory Birds: Winter months attract a few migratory birds like the Siberian Crane and species of ducks and geese.

 

Reptiles

The reptilian fauna is equally impressive in the park, represented by a number of species of lizards, snakes, and turtles.

Indian Python (Python molurus): This is a large snake often found near waterbodies within the park.

Ophiophagus hannah: The King Cobra, one of the most toxic alliurid snakes in the whole world, occupies the thick forests of the park.

 

Monitor Lizard: These large lizards are almost a common feature, sometimes basking in the sun while at other times seeking their prey.

Amphibians and Fish

The aquatic habitats of the park support a variety of amphibians and fish. Frogs, toads, and salamanders are common, and the park’s rivers and streams are home to species like Mahseer and Goonch, which are prized by anglers.

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